Ovarian cancer has the highest case fatality rate of any gynecologic cancer. Thus, intense efforts are being dedicated to identifying new therapeutic targets and pathways which will provide new therapeutic approaches. Historically, this approach has involved the empiric testing of agents in clinical trials attempting to identify one with global activity against cancers. This process has been difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. For ovarian cancer, it has produced a homogenous approach to all forms of ovarian cancer. More recently, however, with the revolution in molecular technologies there has been a major change in our ability to rationally identify therapeutic targets in these tumors. This chapter will review the application of these new technologies to ovarian cancer. Genomic discoveries have revealed a remarkable heterogeneity within ovarian cancers and the diverse molecular pathways found in these tumors provide a molecular underpinning of their clinicopathologic characteristics. Using a systematic assessment of these molecular details with an algorithm of filtering and biomarkers validation, it will be possible to identify and eventually exploit new and novel therapeutic targets within these cancers. This will ultimately deliver more individualized care. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.