Evaluation of the genome has provided information concerning the origins of many human diseases, including cancer. Identification of the genes and their protein products has greatly increased our understanding of this complex disease. A variety of cellular processes and pathways stimulate cellular proliferation or inhibit cell death. Many of these pathways are targets for novel therapeutic agents. These agents will usher in a new era of biologically targeted therapeutics. In gynecologic oncology, we are just beginning to investigate these new biologic agents. An appreciation and understanding of these pathways of growth deregulation in gynecologic cancers provide an opportunity for many clinically relevant therapies. This review summarizes the emerging biologic therapies with an emphasis on their relevance to gynecologic malignancies. Copyright © 2003 by Current Science Inc.