The development of novel therapeutics is a lengthy and often tortuous process. It frequently spans the identification of new targets, preclinical validation, discovery and refinement of novel therapies, safety studies, phase O, 1, 2, and 3 trials, and reverse translation. NIH and NCI provide via web sites a variety of resources and research tools of great value to investigators. NCI also provides tissue resources useful for discovery and validation, as well as extensive support for preclinical drug development. The NCI's effective partnership with industry and academia, as well as the ongoing NCI-supported clinical trials network, facilitates clinical development of novel therapeutics. Specialized NCI programs focused on cancer imaging, radiation research, and complementary and alternative medicine, also assist the development of novel agents. Finally, the NIH and the NCI sponsor a variety of grant mechanisms, supporting institutions, consortia, and individuals, which investigators seeking to develop novel therapeutics should make themselves familiar.