© 2015 American Association for Cancer Research. Purpose: Increased tumor hypoxia and hence elevated hypoxia- inducible factor-1a (HIF1a) is thought to limit the efficacy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway-targeting drugs by upregulating adaptive resistance genes. One strategy to counteract this is to combine antiangiogenic drugs with agents able to suppress HIF1a. One such possibility is the investigational drug CRLX101, a nanoparticle-drug conjugate (NDC) containing the payload camptothecin, a known topoisomerase- I poison. Experimental Design: CRLX101 was evaluated both as a monotherapy and combination with bevacizumab in a preclinical mouse model of advanced metastatic ovarian cancer. These preclinical studies contributed to the rationale for undertaking a phase II clinical study to evaluate CRLX101 monotherapy in patients with advanced platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Results: Preclinically, CRLX101 is highly efficacious as a monotherapy when administered at maximum-tolerated doses. Furthermore, chronic low-dose CRLX101 with bevacizumab reduced bevacizumab-induced HIF1a upregulation and resulted in synergistic efficacy, with minimal toxicity in mice. In parallel, initial data reported here from an ongoing phase II clinical study of CRLX101 monotherapy shows measurable tumor reductions in 74% of patients and a 16% RECIST response rate to date. Conclusions: Given these preclinical and initial clinical results, further clinical studies are currently evaluating CRLX101 in combination with bevacizumab in ovarian cancer and warrant the evaluation of this therapy combination in other cancer types where HIF1a is implicated in pathogenesis, as it may potentially be able to improve the efficacy of antiangiogenic drugs.