© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Our increased understanding of ovarian cancer’s blueprints (mediated by DNA and RNA) and behavior (mediated by proteins) points to wide differences across patients that cannot be depicted by histology alone. Conventional diagnosis usually entails an adequate tissue biopsy, which limits serial testing. There is thus a motivation to shift towards easier to obtain clinical samples (e.g., ascites or blood). In response, investigators are increasingly leveraging alternative circulating biomarkers in blood or proximal fluids and harnessing novel profiling platforms to help explore treatment-related effects on such biomarkers in serial fashion. In this review, we discuss how new nanotechnologies we developed intersect with alternative ovarian cancer biomarkers for improved understanding of metastases and therapeutic response.