The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Apheresis Applications Committee is charged with a review and categorization of indications for therapeutic apheresis. Beginning with the 2007 ASFA Special Issue (fourth edition), the subcommittee has incorporated systematic review and evidence-based approach in the grading and categorization of indications. This Fifth ASFA Special Issue has further improved the process of using evidence-based medicine in the recommendations by refining the category definitions and by adding a grade of recommendation based on widely accepted GRADE system. The concept of a fact sheet was introduced in the Fourth edition and is only slightly modified in this current edition. The fact sheet succinctly summarizes the evidence for the use of therapeutic apheresis. The article consists of 59 fact sheets devoted to each disease entity currently categorized by the ASFA as category I through III. Category IV indications are also listed. © 2010 American Society for Apheresis.