B-1 cells produce natural Abs which provide an integral first line of defense against pathogens while also performing important homeostatic housekeeping functions. In this study, we demonstrate that programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) regulates the production of natural Abs against phosphorylcholine (PC). Naive PD-L2-deficient (PD-L2-/-) mice produced significantly more PC-reactive IgM and IgA. This afforded PD-L2-/- mice with selectively enhanced protection against PC-expressing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, but not PC-negative nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, relative to wild-type mice. PD-L2-/- mice had significantly increased PC-specific CD138+ splenic plasmablasts bearing a B-1a phenotype, and produced PC-reactive Abs largely of the T15 Id. Importantly, PC-reactive B-1 cells expressed PD-L2 and irradiated chimeras demonstrated that B cell-intrinsic PDL2 expression regulated PC-specific Ab production. In addition to increased PC-specific IgM, naive PD-L2-/- mice and irradiated chimeras reconstituted with PD-L2-/- B cells had significantly higher levels of IL-5, a potent stimulator of B-1 cell Ab production. PD-L2 mAb blockade of wild-type B-1 cells in culture significantly increased CD138 and Blimp1 expression and PC-specific IgM, but did not affect proliferation. PD-L2 mAb blockade significantly increased IL-5+ T cells in culture. Both IL-5 neutralization and STAT5 inhibition blunted the effects of PD-L2 mAb blockade on B-1 cells. Thus, B-1 cell-intrinsic PD-L2 expression inhibits IL-5 production by T cells and thereby limits natural Ab production by B-1 cells. These findings have broad implications for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at altering natural Ab levels critical for protection against infectious disease, autoimmunity, allergy, cancer, and atherosclerosis.