Chronic inflammation represents one of the most consistent biologic features of aging. However, the precise etiology of persistent low-grade increases in inflammation remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome may play a key role in age-related inflammation. Indeed, several studies have indicated that older adults display an altered composition of the gut microbiota, and early evidence indicates that this dysbiosis is associated with the presence of several key circulating inflammatory analytes. The present review summarizes knowledge on age-related inflammation and discusses how potential relationships with gut dysbiosis may lead to novel treatment strategies in the future. “The pattern of disease is an expression of the response of man to his total environment (physical, biological, and social); this response is, therefore, determined by anything that affects man himself or his environment.” – Rene Dubos, 1961.