Healthy adult mixed-breed dogs, assigned to 2 groups of 6 dogs each, were given 3 mg of gentamicin sulfate/kg of body weight on 3 injection days 7 days apart. Group 1 was given gentamicin by rapid IV injection, by injection into the belly of the longissimus muscle at the first lumbar vertebrae (IM site 1), and by injection in the belly of the biceps femoris muscle (IM site 2). Group 2 was given gentamicin by rapid IV injection, by SC injection into the space over the cranial angle of the scapula on the midline (SC site 1), and by SC injection just caudal to the crest of the ilium (SC site 2). Pharmacokinetic values (mean +/- SD) from 12 dogs given gentamicin IV were 54.4 +/- 15.4 minutes for the effective half life, 2.29 +/- 0.48 ml/kg/min for clearance, and 172 +/- 25.4 ml/kg for volume of distribution at steady state. Bioavailability (93.92 to 96.65%) and peak plasma gentamicin concentration (9.43 to 10.89 micrograms/ml) were independent of injection site, but time to peak concentration when gentamicin was given at SC site 2 (43.33 minutes) was significantly (P less than 0.05) longer than that when gentamicin was given at IM site 1 (27.50 minutes). Absorption half-life was shorter after injections were given at both IM sites (8.9 and 9.8 minutes) than after injection was given at SC site 2 (18 minutes).