© 2017, Microbiology Society. All rights reserved. The Polyomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses with circular dsDNA genomes of approximately 5 kbp. The family includes four genera whose members have restricted host range, infecting mammals and birds. Polyomavirus genomes have also been detected recently in fish. Merkel cell polyomavirus and raccoon polyomavirus are associated with cancer in their host; other members are human and veterinary pathogens. Clinical manifestations are obvious in immunocompromised patients but not in healthy individuals. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Polyomaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/polyomaviridae.