Blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is used with curative intent for hematologic malignancies. Conditional on surviving the first 2 years after BMT, 5-year survival generally exceeds 70%. However, the cumulative therapeutic exposures lead to premature onset of chronic health conditions, such that the 15-year cumulative incidence of severe or life-threatening chronic health conditions exceeds 40%, resulting in premature mortality. The high burden of morbidity, coupled with a long latency between BMT and the development of chronic health conditions necessitates life-long risk-based monitoring of the BMT survivors. The issues of how and when to screen BMT survivors for therapy-related complications and exacerbation of preexisting conditions are important and largely unanswered questions. For BMT survivors, screening recommendations must incorporate risks associated with pre-BMT therapy as well as risks related to transplant conditioning and graft-versus-host disease. Here, we describe our approach to monitoring BMT survivors for risk-based screening and early detection of key late-occurring or long-term complications using patient scenarios to illustrate our discussion.