One of the essential functions of dendritic cells is to take up Ags in peripheral tissues and migrate into secondary lymphoid organs to present Ags to lymphocytes for the induction of immune responses. Although many studies have demonstrated that the migration of dendritic cells is closely associated with the development of immune responses, little is known about factors that inhibit dendritic cell migration and control the extent of immune responses to Ag stimulation. We show that Slit2, a neuronal repellent factor, is up-regulated in the skin by allergen sensitization and down-regulates the migration of Langerhans cells. The effect is mediated by direct interaction of Slit2 with cells that express a Slit-specific receptor, Robo1. Slit2-mediated inhibition of Langerhans cell migration results in suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism by which Slit2 functions as an anti-inflammatory factor for the initiation of immune responses.