Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major public health concern. Despite tremendous advances, the pathogenic mechanisms associated with MDD are still unclear. Moreover, a significant number of MDD subjects do not respond to the currently available medication. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by modulating translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation, or stability of mRNA targets. The role of miRNAs in disease pathophysiology is emerging rapidly. Recent studies demonstrating the involvement of miRNAs in several aspects of neural plasticity, neurogenesis, and stress response, and more direct studies in human postmortem brain provide strong evidence that miRNAs can not only play a critical role in MDD pathogenesis, but can also open up new avenues for the development of therapeutic targets. Circulating miRNAs are now being considered as possible biomarkers in disease pathogenesis and in monitoring therapeutic responses because of the presence and/or release of miRNAs in blood cells as well as in other peripheral tissues. In this review, these aspects are discussed in a comprehensive and critical manner. © 2014, AICH-Servier Research Group.