© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Background/Study Context: Although cognitive impairment is common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), there are limited data on older adults with MS. The current pilot study involved a preliminary examination of cognitive impairments across a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in older adults with MS compared with older adults without MS. Methods: Twenty older adults with MS and 20 older adults without MS (≥60 years of age) underwent cognitive assessments, including the Trail Making Test (TMT) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). The primary analytical model involved independent-samples t tests on the TMT and RBANS scores. The analysis focused on ½ SD (i.e., Cohen’s d of 0.5) for judging the differences as meaningful. Results: Overall, the study hypotheses were supported such that older adults with MS demonstrated decreased cognitive performance that exceeded ½ SD compared with the older adults without MS. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrated moderate and meaningful differences in cognitive performance in older adults with MS compared with older adults without MS. This suggests a clear need for identifying strategies for alleviating cognitive impairment in older adults with MS.