We developed chimeric Sindbis (SINV)/eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) viruses and investigated their potential for use as live virus vaccines against EEEV. One vaccine candidate contained structural protein genes from a typical North American EEEV strain, while the other had structural proteins from a naturally attenuated Brazilian isolate. Both chimeric viruses replicated efficiently in mammalian and mosquito cell cultures and were highly attenuated in mice. Vaccinated mice did not develop detectable disease or viremia, but developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Upon challenge with EEEV, mice vaccinated with >104 PFU of the chimeric viruses were completely protected from disease. These findings support the potential use of these SIN/EEEV chimeras as safe and effective vaccines. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.