The primary long-term socio-economic challenges facing
Russia – both global and country-specific in nature —
drive demand for a range of technologies. We explore
several groups of challenges, namely urbanization, demographic,
socio-economic, the consequences of ageing,
geopolitical, restricted access to key technological competences,
climate change and its ecological consequences,
as well as technological challenges largely associated with
risks in ICT and biotech development, and the emergence
of so-called ‘killer technologies’ that induce structural
transformation in the economy.
We identify four groups of key factors inf luencing
demand for new technology. First, those factors
that strengthening Russia’s role as a provider of key
natural resources for the global economy. Second, of
equal importance are those factors that support import
substitution of various products of the global market,
including electronic components, chemicals, and food
products. Third, developing centres of technological
competences plays a significant role, especially in
export-oriented, manufacturing, and services sectors.
These include nuclear energy, software, weapons and
military equipment, military aircraft, and energy machinery.
Finally, technological advancement would occur
by integrating Russia within global technological
value chains with external system integrators in pharmaceuticals,
machine-building, petroleum products,
and some ICT sub-sectors.