© 2017 Sawada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. We previously reported that EphA4, a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is an important modulator of growth hormone (GH) signaling, leading to augmented synthesis of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) for postnatal body growth. In the present study, we report the molecular interactions of EphA4, GH receptor (GHR), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B). EphA4 binds to GHR at both its extracellular and intracellular domains and phosphorylates GHR when stimulated with a ligand. The cytoplasmic domain of EphA4 binds to the carboxy-terminus of JAK2 in contrast to the known binding of GHR to the amino-terminus. STAT5B binds to the amino-terminal kinase domain of EphA4. Ligand-activated EphA4 and JAK2 phosphorylate each other and STAT5B, but JAK2 does not appear to phosphorylate EphA4-bound STAT5B. Ligand-activated EphA4 induces the nuclear translocation of STAT5B in a JAK2-independent manner. GHR expression is required for the activation of STAT5B signaling, even via the JAK2-independent pathway. Various ephrins that have affinity for EphA4 induce STAT5B phosphorylation. These findings suggest the molecular mechanisms by which ephrin/EphA4 signaling enhances the canonical GH-IGF1 axis.