© 2017 Nardi-Agmon and Peled. Purpose: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy with a dismal median survival of <12 months with current therapy. Single and combination chemotherapy regimens have shown only modest clinical benefit. In preclinical studies, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid) inhibit growth of mesothelioma cells by different mechanisms: inhibition of mevalonate pathway, inhibition of angiogenesis, activation of apoptosis through caspase activation, and alteration in activity of matrix metalloproteinases, thereby affecting invasiveness of cancer cells. Patients and methods: We investigated the role of zoledronic acid in a pilot, single-arm trial of MPM patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) 0-2 who had progressed on prior treatments or had not received systemic therapy due to poor PS. Primary end point was composite response rate by modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors and/or metabolic response by 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography criteria. Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Exploratory end points include the effect of zoledronic acid therapy on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin 8, transforming growth factor beta, mesothelin, and osteopontin levels. Results: Eight male patients (median age of 62 years) with the following clinical characteristics were treated; ECOG PS was 0-2, 75% with epithelioid type, and 62% had prior chemotherapy. Overall composite response rate was 12.5% and the clinical benefit rate (response + stable disease) was 37.5%. Median PFS was 2 months (0.5-21 months) and median OS was 7 months (0.8-28 months). No treatment-related toxicities were observed. Lower VEGF levels were predictive of favorable response and mesothelin levels correlated with disease course. Conclusion: Zoledronic acid shows modest clinical activity without significant toxicity in patients with advanced MPM.