© 2017, Springer International Publishing AG. The most notable finding in neurodegenerative diseases is the progressive death of neurones cells. Yet, neuroglial changes can precede and facilitate neuronal loss. This is perhaps expected because astroglial cells maintain the brain homoeostasis, and are responsible for defence and regeneration, so that their malfunction manifested as degeneration or asthenia together with reactivity contribute to pathophysiology. Neuroglia may represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention, be that prevention, slowing progression of or possibly curing neurodegenerative diseases.