Objective: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in ethnic minorities, and T2DM is associated with significant comorbidities. The primary objective of this study was to assess glycemic control and cardiovascular risk outcomes in children with T2DM at 1 year after diagnosis. We also assessed whether insulin treatment at onset of diabetes is beneficial for overall outcome in those with elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C).Methods: A retrospective electronic chart review of non-Hispanic white (NHW) and African American (AA) children with T2DM.Results: A total of 86 patients (66.3% females, 79.1% AA, mean age, 13.8 ± 2.4 years) with T2DM were included. Analyses of therapeutic outcome measures at the 1-year follow-up showed HbA1C >8% in 27.7% of patients, low-density- lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >130 mg/dL in 12.5%, non-high-density- lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) >160 mg/dL in 15.6%, HDL-C <35 mg/dL in 25%, systolic hypertension (HTN) in 35.6%, and diastolic HTN in 6.8% of subjects. Among those started on insulin at initial diagnosis, there was significant improvement in glycemic outcomes (P<.0001 on insulin vs. P = .02 not on insulin) and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol [TC] [P = .001], LDL-C [P = .02], HDL-C [P = .01], non-HDL-C [P = .0002], and TC/HDL-C [P = .005]) compared with no significant change among those who did not receive insulin at diagnosis.Conclusion: Substantial numbers of children with T2DM do not achieve glycemic and cardiovascular therapeutic goals 1 year after diagnosis. Insulin therapy at diagnosis has significant beneficial effects on diabetic dyslipidemia in those with higher HbA1C. © 2013 AACE.