Proestrous female rodents are protected from the deleterious effects of trauma-hemorrhage that are observed in males. We hypothesized that the gender dimorphic outcome after trauma-hemorrhage might be related to gender differences in endothelial function and organ perfusion under such conditions. Male and cycle-matched proestrous female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a midline laparotomy, hemorrhagic shock (40 mmHg for ∼90 min), and resuscitation (Ringer lactate, 4x shed blood volume over 60 min). Various parameters were measured 2 h after completion of resuscitation. In the first set of animals, the left ventricle was cannulated and heart performance (maximal rate of left ventricular pressure increase) as well as cardiac output and organ perfusion rates were determined with 85Sr microspheres. In the second set of animals, aortic vessel rings were harvested and relaxation in response to acetylcholine and nitroglycerin was measured. In the third set of animals, in situ isolated small intestine was perfused to measure the response of the splanchnic vessel bed to acetylcholine and nitroglycerin. After trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation, females maintained cardiac output and demonstrated increased splanchnic and cardiac perfusion compared with males. Moreover, female intestines did not manifest the endothelial dysfunction that was observed in male intestines after hemorrhagic shock. We conclude that proestrous females show improved endothelial function and tissue perfusion patterns after hemorrhagic shock and that this genderspecific response might be a potential mechanism contributing to the beneficial effects of the proestrus stage under such conditions.