Objective: This study was undertaken to compare resource use outcomes for participants in the Medicine or Surgery (Ms) randomized trial. Study design: In a randomized controlled trial, we compared resources used during a 24-month follow-up period by women with abnormal uterine bleeding who were randomly assigned to either expanded medical treatment or hysterectomy. Results: Women randomly assigned to hysterectomy used significantly more resources (medicine = $4479, hysterectomy = $6777; P = .03), with almost all the difference caused by the hysterectomy procedure. Fifty-three percent of women randomly assigned to medicine had a hysterectomy during the follow-up period; women who were able to continue on medical therapy had mean total resource use of $2595 compared with $6128 for medicine patients who eventually had surgery. Conclusion: For women with abnormal uterine bleeding refractory to cyclic medroxyprogesterone acetate, compared with expanded medical treatment, hysterectomy increases resource use significantly and results in better clinical and 6-month quality-of-life outcomes. © 2006 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.