Women are seeking care for pelvic organ prolapse in increasing numbers and a significant proportion of them will undergo a second repair for recurrence. This has initiated interest by both surgeons and industry to utilize and design prosthetic mesh materials to help augment longevity of prolapse repairs. Unfortunately, the introduction of transvaginal synthetic mesh kits for use in women was done without the benefit of level 1 data to determine its utility compared with native tissue repair. This report summarizes the potential benefit/risks of transvaginal synthetic mesh use for pelvic organ prolapse and recommendations regarding its continued use. © 2013, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.