OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report two cases of retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele after atlanto-occipital dislocation. This is rare, with only one other reported case in the literature. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report two patients who presented after blunt cervical and head trauma. Plain films revealed that each patient bad atlanto-occipital dislocation. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging revealed the delayed development of retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele. Concomitant hydrocephalus was noted in both patients. INTERVENTION: The surviving patient showed marked neurological improvement and resolution of his pseudomeningocele after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. CONCLUSION: For patients with closed head injuries who develop posttraumatic pseudomeningocele, we recommend cranial computed tomography to assess for the presence of hydrocephalus. In patients with atlanto-occipital dislocation, delayed neurological deterioration warrants magnetic resonance imaging of the craniocervical junction to rule out posttraumatic pseudomeningocele.