More than 300 million routine clinical analyses are performed annually in the United States. Methods for routine clinical urine examination, including detection of bacteriuria, are briefly reviewed. Prospects of some newer, better techniques to carry out such analyses are introduced. A preliminary report is presented on the use of supravital microscopic fluorescence technique (SMFT), employing acridine orange as a non-specific staining fluorochrome. Results of examining 218 unspun urine specimens by SMFT are compared to traditional bacteriologic culture at a large pediatric hospital reference laboratory.