To gain new mechanistic insight into ER homeostasis and the biogenesis of secretory proteins, we screened a genomewide collection of yeast mutants for defective intracellular retention of the ER chaperone, Kar2p. We identified 87 Kar2p-secreting strains, including a number of known components in secretory protein modification and sorting. Further characterization of the 73 nonessential Kar2p retention mutants revealed roles for a number of novel gene products in protein glycosylation, GPIanchor attachment, ER quality control, and retrieval of escaped ER residents. A subset of these mutants, required for ER retrieval, included the GET complex and two novel proteins that likely function similarly in membrane insertion of tail-anchored proteins. Finally, the variant histone, Htz1p, and its acetylation state seem to play an important role in maintaining ER retrieval pathways, suggesting a surprising link between chromatin remodeling and ER homeostasis. Copyright © 2009 by the Genetics Society of America.