Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), characterised by peripheral neurofibromas, cafe-au-lait spots and iris Lisch nodules, is one of the most common inherited disorders. We have analysed exons 35 to 49 in 21 unrelated NF1 patients using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and protein truncation analysis. In two unrelated patients we found skipping of exon 37 at the cDNA level. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of a C6792A transversion in one patient and a C6792G transversion in a second patient; both transversions change the codon for tyrosine to a nonsense codon. Sequencing of the exonic sequences as well as the branch sites, and the 3' and 5' splice sites of exons 36, 37 and 38 did not reveal any additional sequence abnormality. This is the first report showing that nonsense mutations in the NF1 gene can induce the skipping of a constitutive exon.