Lipoproteins play a key role in regulating plasma and tissue levels of cholesterol. Apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, including chylomicrons, very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), serve as carriers of triglycerides and cholesterol and deliver these metabolites to peripheral tissues. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mediates Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT), a process by which excess cholesterol is removed from the periphery and taken up by hepatocytes where it is metabolized and excreted. Anti-atherogenic properties of HDL have been largely ascribed to apoA-I, the major protein component of the lipoprotein particle. The inflammatory response associated with atherosclerosis and ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury has been linked to the development of mitochondrial dysfunction. Under these conditions, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation induces damage to mitochondrial structural elements, leading to a reduction in ATP synthesis and initiation of the apoptotic program. Recent studies suggest that HDL-associated apoA-I and lysosphingolipids attenuate mitochondrial injury by multiple mechanisms, including the suppression of ROS formation and induction of autophagy. Other apolipoproteins, however, present in lower abundance in HDL particles may exert opposing effects on mitochondrial function. This chapter examines the role of HDL-associated apolipoproteins and lipids in the regulation of mitochondrial function and bioenergetics.