Cell cycle adaptations of embryonic stem cells

Academic Article


  • ES cells proliferate with very short gap phases yet maintain their capacity to differentiate. It had been thought that the levels of cyclins and other substrates of ubiquitin ligase APC/C remain nearly constant and Cdk activity remains constitutively high in mouse ES cells. Here we demonstrate that APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) enzyme is active in ES cells but attenuated by high levels of the Emi1 (early mitotic inhibitor-1) protein. Despite the presence of high Cdk activity during the G1 phase, chromatin can be effectively licensed for DNA replication and fast entry into the S phase can still occur. High Cdk activity during S-G2-M phases produces high levels of the DNA replication factor Cdt1, and this leads to efficient Mcm proteins loading on chromatin after mitotic exit. Although disturbing the usual balance between Cdk activity and APC/C activity found in somatic cells, a few key adaptations allow normal progression of a very rapid cell cycle.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 19139127
  • Author List

  • Ballabeni A; Park IH; Zhao R; Wang W; Lerou PH; Daley GQ; Kirschner MW
  • Start Page

  • 19252
  • End Page

  • 19257
  • Volume

  • 108
  • Issue

  • 48