APOL1 genetic variants are not associated with longitudinal blood pressure in young black adults

Academic Article


  • Whether APOL1 polymorphisms contribute to the excess risk of hypertension among blacks is unknown. To assess this we evaluated whether self-reported race and, in blacks, APOL1 risk variants (high-risk [2 risk alleles] versus low-risk [0-1 risk allele]) were associated with longitudinal blood pressure. Blood pressure trajectories were determined using linear mixed-effects (slope) and latent class models (5 distinct groups) during 25 years of follow-up in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Associations of race and APOL1 genotypes with blood pressure change, separately, using linear mixed-effects and multinomial logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and traditional hypertension risk factors, anti-hypertensive medication use, and kidney function were evaluated. Among 1700 whites and 1330 blacks (13% APOL1 high-risk, mean age 25 years; 46% male) mean mid–, ([systolic + diastolic blood pressure]/2), systolic, and diastolic blood pressures were 89, 110, and 69 mm Hg, respectively. One percent of participants used anti-hypertensive medications at baseline. Compared to whites, blacks, regardless of APOL1 genotype, had significantly greater increases in mid-blood pressure and were more likely to experience significantly increasing mid–blood pressure trajectories with adjusted relative risk ratios of 5.21 and 7.27 for moderate-increasing and elevated-increasing versus low-stable blood pressure, respectively. Among blacks, longitudinal mid–blood pressure changes and mid–blood pressure trajectory classification were similar by APOL1 risk status. Modeling systolic and diastolic blood pressure as outcomes yielded similar findings. From young adulthood to mid-life, blacks have greater blood pressure increases versus whites that are not fully explained by traditional risk factors. Thus APOL1 variants are not associated with longitudinal blood pressure in blacks.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Chen TK; Estrella MM; Vittinghoff E; Lin F; Gutierrez OM; Kramer H; Lewis CE; Kopp JB; Allen NB; Winkler CA
  • Start Page

  • 964
  • End Page

  • 971
  • Volume

  • 92
  • Issue

  • 4