The mechanisms allowing the gastrointestinal immune system to avoid an inappropriate inflammatory response to nonpathogenic luminal Ags are poorly understood. We have previously described a role for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites produced by the murine small intestine lamina propria in controlling the immune response to a dietary Ag. To better understand the role of COX-2-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites produced by the lamina propria, we examined the pattern of expression and the cellular source of COX-2 and COX-2-dependent PGE2. We now demonstrate that non-bone marrow-derived lamina propria stromal cells have basal COX-2 expression and that COX-2-dependent PGE2 production by these cells is spontaneous and continuous. The other mucosal and nonmucosal lymphoid compartments examined do not share this phenotype. In contrast to the majority of descriptions of COX-2 expression, COX-2 expression by lamina propria stromal cells is not dependent upon exogenous stimuli, including adhesion, LPS signaling via Toll-like receptor 4, or the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β. These findings, in conjunction with the known immunomodulatory capacities of PGs, suggest that COX-2 expression by the small intestine lamina propria is a basal state contributing to the hyporesponsiveness of the intestinal immune response.