Lymphotoxin (LT), a cytokine belonging to the TNF family, has established roles in the formation of secondary lymphoid structures and in the compartmentalization of T and B lymphocyte areas of the spleen. In this study, we examine the role of LT in directing the composition of intestinal lymphocytes. We report that mice deficient in LT have a normal composition of intestinal lamina propria (LP) T lymphocytes, and an absence of intestinal LP B lymphocytes. We further refine this observation to demonstrate that the interaction of LT with the LTβR is essential for the presence LP B lymphocytes. The LT/LTβR-dependent events relevant for the presence of LP B lymphocytes occur after birth, do not require the presence of Peyer's patches, lymph nodes, or the spleen; and therefore, are distinct and independent from the previously identified roles of LT/LTβR. The LT-dependent signal relevant for the presence of LP B lymphocytes is optimally supplied by a LT-sufficient B lymphocyte, and requires a LTβR-sufficient radio-resistant, non-bone marrow-derived cell. Based upon the severity of the deficit of LP B lymphocytes we observed, these novel LT/LTβR-dependent events are of primary importance in directing the entry and residence of LP B lymphocytes.