© 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of iliac vein stents placed for iliocaval venous obstruction (ICVO) and to determine if routine follow-up surveillance is warranted on the basis of timing of stent failure. Methods All patients who underwent iliac vein stenting from 2003 to 2015 were identified from a prospectively maintained registry. Demographics of the patients, venous risk factors, prior venous interventions, indications, imaging, anatomic location of the ICVO, operative findings, procedural success, complications, and clinical follow-up were recorded. Clinical and ultrasound surveillance was performed at first postoperative follow-up and at routine subsequent intervals. Continuous data were analyzed with Student t-tests or Mann-Whitney U test, and frequency data were analyzed with χ2 analysis or Fisher exact test. Primary patency was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Seventy-four limbs in 70 patients who underwent iliac vein stenting for ICVO were identified; 36 limbs (48.6%) were stented for nonthrombotic venous compression (stent-VC), and 38 limbs (51.4%) were stented for venous thrombosis (stent-VT). Twenty-seven limbs (71.1%) of the stent-VT group were treated for acute venous thrombosis requiring lysis followed by stenting for underlying venous lesions. The median number of follow-up visits for the stent-VC and stent-VT groups was two (interquartile range [IQR], 1-4) and two (IQR, 1-3), whereas the mean length of follow-up was 19.6 ± 29.5 months and 19.8 ± 26.5 months (P = .972), respectively. During the first 6 months, one limb (2.8% [n = 36]) in the stent-VC group occluded, whereas 13.2% (5/38) of the limbs in the stent-VT group occluded. In the stent-VT group, 57% of limbs (4 of 7) with acute venous thrombosis requiring thrombolytic therapy had limb occlusion at >6 months (median, 18.1 months; IQR, 16.6-30.1). Overall patency rates for the stent-VC and stent-VT groups were 97.2% (1/36) and 73.7% (10/38) at 36 months (standard error, ≤10%; P = .001), respectively. Conclusions Iliac vein stents placed for nonthrombotic iliac vein compression had statistically higher patency than those placed for venous thrombosis, with few stent failures, all occurring within 6 months. Iliac vein stents placed for venous thrombosis continued with stent failure after 6 months and may benefit from extended surveillance.