The performance of 35 individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was examined on two occasions averaging 2 and 5 months postonset. Severe deficits in learning across trials, delayed recall, cued recall, and recognition were noted initially, with improvement evident at the second evaluation. Subjects with TBI did not reach normal levels of performance, however, based on comparisons with a control sample. Intrusion of inappropriate information during recall was more common among TBI subjects, and use of memory strategies was less than anticipated. © 1995, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.