Evaluation of the Eclipse eMC algorithm for bolus electron conformal therapy using a standard verification dataset

Academic Article


  • © Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and calculation speed of electron dose distributions calculated by the Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). The recent commercial availability of bolus ECT technology requires further validation of the eMC dose calculation algorithm. eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to previously measured TLD-dose points throughout patient-based cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV (planning treatment volume) CT anatomy. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system, and electron dose distributions calculated using 1% and < 0.2% statistical uncertainties. The accuracy of the dose calculations using moderate smoothing and no smoothing were evaluated. Dose differences (eMC-calculated less measured dose) were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference, where 100% equals the given dose, as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Dose calculations were also evaluated for calculation speed. Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing showed calculated dose at 89% (41/46) of the measured TLD-dose points was within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA of the measured value. The average dose difference was -0.21%, and the net standard deviation was 2.32%. Differences as large as 3.7% occurred immediately distal to the mandible bone. Results for the nose phantom, using 1% statistical uncertainty without smoothing, showed calculated dose at 93% (53/57) of the measured TLD-dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. The average dose difference was 1.08%, and the net standard deviation was 3.17%. Differences as large as 10% occurred lateral to the nasal air cavities. Including smoothing had insignificant effects on the accuracy of the retromolar trigone phantom calculations, but reduced the accuracy of the nose phantom calculations in the high-gradient dose areas. Dose calculation times with 1% statistical uncertainty for the retromolar trigone and nose treatment plans were 30 s and 24 s, respectively, using 16 processors (Intel Xeon E5-2690, 2.9 GHz) on a framework agent server (FAS). In comparison, the eMC was significantly more accurate than the pencil beam algorithm (PBA). The eMC has comparable accuracy to the pencil beam redefinition algorithm (PBRA) used for bolus ECT planning and has acceptably low dose calculation times. The eMC accuracy decreased when smoothing was used in high-gradient dose regions. The eMC accuracy was consistent with that previously reported for accuracy of the eMC electron dose algorithm and shows that the algorithm is suitable for clinical implementation of bolus ECT.
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    Author List

  • Carver RL; Sprunger CP; Hogstrom KR; Popple RA; Antolak JA
  • Start Page

  • 52
  • End Page

  • 60
  • Volume

  • 17
  • Issue

  • 3