Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are designed for the purpose of reviewing and monitoring research efforts with the intent of protecting the rights of human subjects. This chapter will present a brief history of IRBs and human subject research along with the ethical considerations that must be considered when conducting educational research. The basic components of an IRB application will be discussed, and the three types of review categories will be explained. Electronic surveys and internet research will also be explored in regard to confidentiality and adherence to IRB standards. A section on International Ethics Committees is included as well as resources for those submitting to an IRB both in the United States and internationally. The end of the chapter contains a section geared toward simulation experts who have a fair amount of experience with IRBs. This section includes practical tips for managing large numbers of research studies and facilitating multisite research studies at the local level.