Regulators of G-protein Signaling (RGS) proteins attenuate signaling activities of G proteins, and modulation of expression appears to be a primary mechanism for regulating RGS proteins. In human astrocytoma 1321N1 cells RGS2 expression was increased by activation of muscarinic receptors coupled to phosphoinositide signaling with carbachol, or by increased cyclic AMP production, demonstrating that both signaling systems can increase the expression of a RGS family member in a single cell type. Carbachol-stimulated increases in endogenous RGS2 protein levels appeared by immunocytochemical analysis to be largely confined to the nucleus, and this localization was confirmed by Western blot analysis which showed increased nuclear, but not cytosolic, RGS2 after carbachol treatment. Additionally, transiently expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged, 6×His-tagged, or unmodified RGS2 resulted in a predominant nuclear localization, as well as a distinct accumulation of RGS2 along the plasma membrane. The intranuclear localization of GFP-RGS2 was confirmed with confocal microscopy. Thus, RGS2 expression is rapidly and transiently increased by phosphoinositide signaling and by cyclic AMP, and endogenous and transfected RGS2 is largely, although not entirely, localized in the nucleus. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.