The Infectious Diseases Society of America Annual Meeting serves as a time of expert review of the year's most important innovations. Important new information on HIV infection incidence was discussed. The remarkable efficacy of "treatment as prevention" in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 study and the proper place of oral preexposure prophylaxis were among the important prevention topics. Key engagement-in-care research indicates that only 19% of HIV-infected persons in the United States have a plasma HIV RNA level below the limits of assay detection. Among antiretroviral topics, the role of the newly approved nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) rilpivirine was discussed. Primary care topics for the HIV-infected population included treatment of triglyceride level elevations and bone health. The newly published data on the proper timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation after starting tuberculosis treatment were highlighted. Finally, exciting advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection necessitate that practitioners understand the complexities of treating HIV/HCV coinfections. © 2011, IAS-USA.