Esophageal symptoms such as odynophagia and dysphagia are suggestive of esophageal infection in immunocompromised patients. Common causes of immunocompromised include neutropenia (usually iatrogenic), HIV, transplantation and immunomodulator therapy (including high dose steroids), The most common infections include candida, herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), each of which have suggestive endoscopic findings, can be confirmed with biopsy and/or brushings and have effective therapies. These therapies most often include fluconazole for candida, acyclovir for HSV and ganciclovir or foscarnet for CMV. Other rare infections include mycobacteria, other bacteria, actinomycosis and other virial, fungal and protozoal infections. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.