While the number of patients dying from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has fallen dramatically in the developed world with the widespread adoption of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are still occurring and have fallen only marginally in the developing world. Thus, the infection remains devastating worldwide. The gastrointestinal manifestations of AIDS involve essentially every gastrointestinal organ system. The clinical presentation, response to therapy, and outcome of these complications has been well characterized. While new therapies have been developed for some infections, for most patients, the primary "therapy" for any opportunistic disorder is HAART. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.