OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to develop an endovascular delivery system containing gelatin hydrogels for the controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with the use of polyethylene terephthalate fiber coils and to analyze whether such a system would promote healing in an experimental aneurysm. METHODS: Carotid aneurysms were constructed in 66 rabbits with venous pouches. The polyethylene terephthalate fiber coils coated with and without gelatin hydrogels with different water volumes containing 0, 10, 50, and 100 μg bFGF were implanted into the aneurysms. Histological specimens were harvested at 1, 2, and 3 weeks and at 6 months after implantation. A histological evaluation was performed while the area occupied by the fibrosis in the aneurysms was calculated. RESULTS: Three weeks after the application of the coils coated with gelatin hydrogels (95 vol%) containing 100 μg bFGF, all aneurysmal orifices were completely closed with neointima. When the coils coated with gelatin hydrogel (98 vol%) containing 100 μg bFGF were used, the orifices in three of the six aneurysms were closed. In contrast, the orifice of the aneurysm was not obliterated when other materials were used. After implanting the coils coated with gelatin hydrogel (95 vol%) containing 100 μg bFGF more than 3 weeks later, the aneurysm was histologically suffused with fibrous tissue, and the area occupied by fibrosis was significantly larger than that observed in the other groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Local, controlled release of sufficient amounts of bFGF with polyethylene terephthalate fiber coils coated with gelatin hydrogel accelerated the organization of aneurysms.