A prior diagnosis of HIV increases the risk of lymphoma between 150 to 250- fold, depending on the subtype, as compared with the risk observed in the general population. The advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has seen a dramatic reduction in AIDS morbidity and a modest reduction in the incidence of opportunistic infections along with a corresponding reduction in Kaposi's sarcoma. There has not, however, been a clear reduction in the incidence of lymphoma. As HAART therapy continues to improve in the Western world, the morbidity of HIV infection is beginning to shift from AIDS to other associated illness such as lymphoma. The treatment and etiology of lymphoma is a burgeoning issue in the care of HIV positive populations. This review will provide a basic overview of the association between HIV and lymphoma.