Prostate tumorigenesis is associated with loss of PTEN gene expression. We and others have recently reported that PTEN is regulated by Notch-1 signaling. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that alterations of the Notch-1 signaling pathway are present in human prostate adenocarcinoma and that Notch-1 signaling regulates PTEN gene expression in prostate cells. Prostate adenocarcinoma cases were examined by immunohistochemistry for ligand cleaved (activated) Notch-1 protein. Tumor foci exhibited little cleaved Notch-1 protein, but expression was observed in benign tissue. Both tumor and benign tissue expressed total (uncleaved) Notch-1. Reduced Hey-1 expression was seen in tumor foci but not in benign tissue, confirming loss of Notch-1 signaling in prostate adenocarcinoma. Retroviral expression of constitutively active Notch-1 in human prostate tumor cell lines resulted in increased PTEN gene expression. Incubation of prostate cell lines with the Notch-1 ligand, Delta, resulted in increased PTEN expression indicating that endogenous Notch-1 regulates PTEN gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that CBF-1 was bound to the PTEN promoter. These data collectively indicate that defects in Notch-1 signaling may play a role in human prostate tumor formation in part via a mechanism that involves regulation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.