Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of global infant mortality, and there is currently no licensed vaccine that provides protection against infection or disease. Several P. falciparum vaccine targets have undergone early testing, but many more candidates remain with little data to support their development. Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 6 (PfMSP6) is a candidate of particular interest because it is a member of the PfMSP3 multi-gene family, raising the possibility that vaccine-induced immune responses could cross-react across multiple family members. However, few immunoepidemiological studies of PfMSP6 have been carried out to measure domain-specific anti-PfMSP6 responses. This study investigated anti-PfMSP6 responses in P. falciparum-infected individuals from the Peruvian Amazon, using two different PfMSP6N-terminal allele antigens and a single C-terminal domain antigen, and compared the responses with both PfMSP6 genotyping data and anti-PfMSP3 response data that had been previously generated for the same samples. Anti-PfMSP6 responses were detected despite the low transmission setting, but were less frequent and of considerably lower intensity than anti-PfMSP3 responses. There was a positive correlation between anti-PfMSP3 and PfMSP6 responses, suggesting that the possibility that PfMSP3 family antigens could induce cross-reactive responses requires further detailed investigation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.