Background. A cooperative effect of exogenous insulin and recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) with respect to whole-body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism has not been demonstrated previously. This study examined the effect of r-hGH and insulin administration during euglycemic clamping and concurrent amino acid supplementation. Methods. Twenty-three normal volunteers in the postabsorptive state were either treated with r-hGH for 3 consecutive days before a metabolic study (GH group; n = 10) or not treated (CTRL group; n = 13). The r-hGH dose was 0.2 mg/kg/day (n = 5) or 0.1 mg/kg/day (n = 5). All subjects then received an infusion of 14C-labeled leucine and tritiated phenylalanine, followed by measurement of baseline protein kinetics (GH and CTRL). Subsequently a euglycemic insulin infusion (1 mU/kg/min) with concurrent amino acid infusion was administered, and protein kinetic measurements were repeated at steady state. Results. GH and insulin separately produced an increase in whole-body and skeletal muscle protein net balance. GH plus insulin was associated with a higher net balance of protein than was insulin alone. Conclusions. r-hGH and insulin in the presence of amino acids and glucose combine to improve whole-body and skeletal muscle protein kinetics. © 1992.