About 1% of all patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States are infected with HIV. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV death rates have declined 80%, and chronic diseases resulting from HIV have replaced opportunistic infections as the leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients. Traditionally, HIV infection has been considered an absolute contraindication to solid-organ transplantation. However, in the context of improved survival, the role for kidney transplantation among HIV-positive patients is currently being revisited. This article discusses long-term outcomes after kidney transplantation in the HAART era and management strategies for the HIV-positive kidney transplant recipient. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.