Background and objectives Kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death (DCD) provides similar graft survival to donors after brain death (DBD) in adult recipients. However, outcomes of DCD kidneys in pediatric recipients remain unclear, primarily because of limited sample sizes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We identified 137 pediatric (<18 years old) recipients of DCD kidneys between 1994 and 2010 using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data and compared outcomes with 6059 pediatric recipients of DBD kidneys during the same time period, accounting for donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics using time-varying Cox regression and matched controls. Long-term follow-up (4 years or beyond) was available for 31 DCD recipients. Results Pediatric recipients of DCD kidneys experienced a significantly higher rate of delayed graft function (22.0% versus 12.3%; P = 0.001), although lower than reported delayed graft function rates of DCD grafts in adults. Although DCD and DBD graft survival was equal in the early postoperative period, graft loss among pediatric recipients of DCD kidneys exceeded their DBD counterparts starting 4 years after transplantation. This effect was statistically significant in a multivariate Cox model (hazard ratio = 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 3.39; P = 0.007) and matched-controls analysis (hazard ratio = 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.03; P = 0.03). Conclusions A significant increase in DCD graft loss starting 4 years after transplantation motivates a cautious approach to the use of DCD kidneys in children, in whom long-term graft survival is of utmost importance. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology.