Nonhuman primates provide an optimal model for the evaluation of tolerance in the preclinical setting. Transplantation and management of nonhuman primates are technically demanding, and the purpose of this article is to review our extensive experience in renal transplantation in non-human primates, with particular emphasis on modifications of surgical techniques on urologic complications. We retrospectively reviewed our results with 329 renal transplants in rhesus monkeys over an 18-year period. The surgical technique and, in particular, the ureteroneocystostomy have evolved over this period of time. This review extensively details our current technique, the surgical and urologic complications, and their management. There were 329 renal transplants performed. There were 85 early deaths, or animals euthanized, within 30 days of the transplant operation. In the first 15 years, there were 27 (10.68%) surgical complications that required euthanasia, and in the last 3 years the complication rate has been reduced to 5 (7.3%, p<.05). The routine use of microsurgical techniques has reduced the incidence of arterial thrombosis (6.2% vs. 2.9%,p<.05). The incidence of ureteral strictures (15 vs. 0, p<.005) has been reduced by a modification of the ureteroneocystostomy technique detailed in the text. Renal transplantation in small rhesus monkeys is technically demanding. The routine use of microsurgical techniques and a modified ureteroneocystostomy has reduced the incidence of surgical complications.