Graft survival was examined in 15 renal allograft recipients from a group of 20 patients with IgM auto- lymphocytotoxic antibody that could be removed in a crossmatch assay using a reducing agent, dithioeryth- ritol (DTE). The significant differences in this group of 20 patients compared with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients lacking autolymphocytotoxic antibodies included an increased frequency of black patients (P=0.002), a lack of previous transplants (P=0.003), and an increased frequency of the HLA-DR1 phenotype (P=0.0001). Sex and the number of transfusions did not appear significant, whereas the cause of ESRD was primarily systemic lupus erythematosus. Fifteen of the 20 patients were transplanted against a positive donor crossmatch. Eleven were recipients of cadaveric kidneys, nine of which are still functioning for periods ranging from 0.5 to 40 months. Two of the cadaveric recipients died with functional grafts. Four received living-related donor transplants, one of which was lost to acute rejection one month posttransplant, while the remaining three have survived 1.5, 9, and 21 months, respectively. Fourteen patients had immediate allograft function with no hyperacute rejection and only one case of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was found. In summary, a negative crossmatch using DTE-treated, autologous reactive recipient sera may identify a group of patients who can be transplanted with minimal concern for hyperacute rejection or ATN. In addition to cause of ESRD, race, transplant history, and HLA-DR phenotype may further define this group of transplant candidates having IgM autolymphocytotoxic antibody. Extrapolation of these conclusions to transplant candidates lacking autolymphocytotoxic antibodies is not warranted. © 1989 by The Williams and Wilkins Co.