Primary small bowel neoplasms (PSBN) are uncommon, accounting for less than 15 per cent of all gastrointestinal tumors. Benign duodenal neoplasms (BDN) are rare, comprising only 10 to 20 per cent of all PSBN. The treatment is generally surgical resection ranging from local excision to pancreaticoduodenectomy depending on size, location, and number of lesions. Patients undergoing surgical treatment for BDN at Vanderbilt University Medical Center from July 1984 to April 2006, were identified and reviewed retrospectively. Medical records were examined for demographics, operative details, results, and complications. Twenty-six patients were identified of which 56 per cent were male and the mean age was 56 ± 14 years. Lesions were found throughout the duodenum, but the majority (62%) were ampullary. Nearly 75 per cent were adenomas, including over half with dysplasia. Operative interventions and complication rates were: duodenal resection with primary anastomosis (n = 3,0%), local excision (n = 6,50%), ampullary resection (n = 10, 30%), and pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 7, 86%). There were no reoperations or mortalities. Mean followup was 14 months. BDN are an increasingly common problem in an era of frequent use of upper endoscopy. The surgical management of these lesions must be tailored to their size, number, location, and malignant potential. A wide variety of surgical procedures can be performed with acceptable morbidity.